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  • Author(s):
    Yumiko Tokusumi, Tsuyoshi Tokusumi, Robert A. Schulz
    Abstract:

    Acute inflammation can cause serious tissue damage and disease in physiologically-challenged organisms. The precise mechanisms leading to these detrimental effects remain to be determined. In this study, we utilize a reproducible means to induce cellular immune activity in Drosophila larvae in response to mechanical stress. That is, forceps squeeze-administered stress induces lamellocytes, a defensive hemocyte type that normally appears in response to wasp infestation of larvae. The posterior…

    Date Published:
    2018-07
  • Author(s):
    Jeremy Fein, Clayton Johnson, Joshua Shrout
    Abstract:

    Understanding metal sorption to bacteria is important for developing bioremediation strategies, for determining the fate of contaminants in ground water systems, and for defining controls on microbial metabolic processes in the environment. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been the only technique available for quantifying and mapping metal sorption to bacteria on an individual cell scale, but the XAS approach is time consuming and expensive, and quantitative mapping of the distribution…

    Date Published:
    2018-04
  • Author(s):
    Md Suhail Alam, Bruce Cooper, Kasturi Halder
    Abstract:

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are of significant interest as drugs. However, their use in neurological disorders has raised concern because HDACs are required for brain function. We have previously shown that a triple combination formulation (TCF) of the pan HDACi vorinostat (Vo) improves pharmacokinetic exposure and entry of Vo into the brain. TCF treatment significantly delayed both neurodegeneration and death in the Npc1nmf164 murine model of Niemann Pick Type C (NPC) disease. The …

    Date Published:
    2017-09
  • Author(s):
    Manuela Lahne, Clare E. Yarka, Michael E. Petravick, Jingling Li, David R. Hyde
    Abstract:

    Sox2 is a well-established neuronal stem cell-associated transcription factor that regulates neural development and adult neurogenesis in vertebrates, and is one of the critical genes used to reprogram differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. We examined if Sox2 was involved in the early reprogramming-like events that Müller glia undergo as they upregulate many pluripotency- and neural stem cell-associated genes required for proliferation in light-damaged adult zebrafish reti…

    Date Published:
    2017-08
  • Author(s):
    Cassandra L. Gorsuch, Patrick Fagan, Chan Lee, Sun Eun Kim, Jens C. Hamann, Joshua A. Mason, Kelsey J. Weigel, Matyas Abel Tsegaye, Luqun Shen, Sydney Shuff, Junjun Zuo, Stephan Hu, Lei jJiang, Sarah Chapman, W. Matthew Leevy, Ralph J. DeBerardinis, Michael Overholtzer, Zachary T. Schafer
    Abstract:

    For cancer cells to survive during extracellular matrix (ECM) detachment, they must inhibit anoikis and rectify metabolic deficiencies that cause non-apoptotic cell death. Previous studies in ECM-detached cells have linked non-apoptotic cell death to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, although the mechanistic underpinnings of this link remain poorly defined. Here, we uncover a role for receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) in the modulation of ROS and cell viability during ECM …

    Date Published:
    2018-03
  • Author(s):
    Tsuyoshi Tokusumi, Yumiko Tokusumi, Robert A. Schulz
    Abstract:

    Hedgehog (Hh) pathway signaling is crucial for the maintenance of blood cell progenitors in thelymph gland hematopoietic organ present in Drosophila third instar larvae. Previous studies fromour lab have likewise shown the importance of the mir-7 and bag of marbles (bam) genes in main-taining the progenitor state. Thus, we sought to investigate a possible interaction between the Hhpathway and mir-7/bam in the prohemocyte population within this hematopoietic tissue. Gain offunction mir-7 was a…

    Date Published:
    2018-04
  • Author(s):
    Patricia M. Schnepp, Dennis D. Lee, Ian H. Guldner, Treasa K. O'Tighearnaigh, Erin N. Howe, Bhavana Palakurthi, Kaitlyn E. Eckert, Tiffany A. Toni, Brandon L. Ashfeld, Siyuan Zhang
    Abstract:

    The impact of altered amino acid metabolism on cancer progression is not fully understood. We hypothesized that a metabolic transcriptome shift during metastatic evolution is crucial for brain metastasis. Here, we report a powerful impact in this setting caused by epigenetic upregulation of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), a regulator of the GABA neurotransmitter metabolic pathway. In cell-based culture and brain metastasis models, we found that downregulation of the DNA methyltransferase DN…

    Date Published:
    2017-04
  • Author(s):
    Katheryn L. Smith, Micah J. Ferrell, Miguel A.. Morales, Brianna Norris-Mulins, Joseph S. Krivda
    Abstract:

    Leishmania parasites are responsible for important neglected diseases in humans and animals, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral manifestations. During the infectious cycle, Leishmania differentiates from the extracellular flagellated promastigote to the intracellular pathogenic amastigote. Parasite differentiation is triggered by changes in environmental cues, mainly pH and temperature. In general, extracellular signals are translated into stage-specific gene expres…

    Date Published:
    2018-09
  • Author(s):
    Jakub Plášil, Anthony R. Kampf, Peter C. Burns
    Abstract:

    Redcanyonite (IMA2016-082), (NH4)2Mn(UO2)4O4(SO4)24, occursunderground in the Blue Lizard mine, Red Canyon, White Canyon district,San Juan County, Utah, USA. It occurs with natrozippeite, brochantite, devilline, posnjakite, johannite, gypsum, bobcookite, pickingerite, pentahydrite, and the NH4-analog of zippeite, ammoniozippeite. Redcanyonite occurs as radial aggregates of red-orange needles and blades individually reaching up to 0.2 mm in length, with aggregates measuring up to 1 mm i…

    Date Published:
    2018-05
  • Author(s):
    Colin Flinders, Shannon M. Mumenthaler, Amanda B. Hummon, Xin Liu
    Abstract:

    Patient-derived colorectal tumor organoids (CTOs) closely recapitulate the complex morphological, phenotypic, and genetic features observed in in vivo tumors. Therefore, evaluation of drug distribution and metabolism in this model system can provide valuable information to predict the clinical outcome of a therapeutic response in individual patients. In this report, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to examine the spatial distribution…

    Date Published:
    2018-03
  • Author(s):
    Katheryn L. Smith, Micah J. Ferrell, Miguel A.. Morales
    Abstract:

    Leishmania parasites are responsible for important neglected diseases in humans and animals, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral manifestations. During the infectious cycle, Leishmania differentiates from the extracellular flagellated promastigote to the intracellular pathogenic amastigote. Parasite differentiation is triggered by changes in environmental cues, mainly pH and temperature. In general, extracellular signals are translated into stage-specific gene expres…

    Date Published:
    2018-09
  • Author(s):
    Jeff Schorey, Yong Cheng
    Abstract:

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been shown to carry microbial components and function in the host defense against infections. In this study, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) RNA is delivered into macrophage-derived EVs through an M.tb SecA2-dependent pathway, and that EVs released from M.tb-infected macrophages stimulate a host RIG-I/MAVS/TBK1/IRF3 RNA sensing pathway, leading to type I interferon production in recipient cells. These EVs also promote, in a RIG-I/MAVS-de…

    Date Published:
    2018-06