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  • Author(s):
    Matthew Sisk
    Abstract:

    Lead exposure is a major health hazard affecting children and their growth and is a concern in many urban areas around the world. One such city in the United States (US), South Bend Indiana, gained attention for its high levels of lead in blood and relatively low testing rates for children. We assessed current lead screening practices in South Bend and the surrounding St. Joseph County (SJC). The 2005–2015 lead screening data included 18,526 unique children. Lead screening rates ranged from 4…

  • Author(s):
    Katheryn L. Smith, Micah J. Ferrell, Miguel A.. Morales, Brianna Norris-Mulins, Joseph S. Krivda
    Abstract:

    Leishmania parasites are responsible for important neglected diseases in humans and animals, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral manifestations. During the infectious cycle, Leishmania differentiates from the extracellular flagellated promastigote to the intracellular pathogenic amastigote. Parasite differentiation is triggered by changes in environmental cues, mainly pH and temperature. In general, extracellular signals are translated into stage-specific gene expres…

    Date Published:
    2018-09
  • Author(s):
    Katheryn L. Smith, Micah J. Ferrell, Miguel A.. Morales
    Abstract:

    Leishmania parasites are responsible for important neglected diseases in humans and animals, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral manifestations. During the infectious cycle, Leishmania differentiates from the extracellular flagellated promastigote to the intracellular pathogenic amastigote. Parasite differentiation is triggered by changes in environmental cues, mainly pH and temperature. In general, extracellular signals are translated into stage-specific gene expres…

    Date Published:
    2018-09
  • Author(s):
    Jeff Schorey, Yong Cheng
    Abstract:

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been shown to carry microbial components and function in the host defense against infections. In this study, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) RNA is delivered into macrophage-derived EVs through an M.tb SecA2-dependent pathway, and that EVs released from M.tb-infected macrophages stimulate a host RIG-I/MAVS/TBK1/IRF3 RNA sensing pathway, leading to type I interferon production in recipient cells. These EVs also promote, in a RIG-I/MAVS-de…

    Date Published:
    2018-06
  • Author(s):
    Matthew Sisk, Lacey Ahern, Heidi Beidinger, Danielle LaFleur, Michelle Ngai
    Abstract:

    Lead exposure in SJC continues to be a persistent, complex public health issue. Data released in December 2016 showed that census tract 6 in South Bend had the highest rates of EBLL in the state of Indiana. Because lead exposure can produce significant cognitive and physiological damage even at very low levels of exposure, immediate action was required. Understanding what the epidemiologic profile of lead in SJC was among the first steps taken to address this issue. The St. Joseph Coun…

    Date Published:
    2017-07