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  • Author(s):
    Robert Hughes, Trevor Demille, Svetlana Neretina
    Abstract:

    The functionality of well-tailored nanomaterials can only be retained if they are robust to the environmental factors in which they operate. The inability of Cu to withstand such factors is largely responsible for its current status as a second-tier plasmonic nanomaterial. Herein, it is demonstrated that atomic layer deposition can be used as a pliable technique for the application of oxide coatings to substrate-based Cu nanostructures where suitably protected structures become robust to oxid…

    Date Published:
    2020-07
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  • Author(s):
    Obaidullah Rahman, Ken Sauer
    Abstract:

    In this work, we perform direct material reconstruction from spectral CT data using a model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) approach. Material concentrations are measured in volume fractions, whose total is constrained by a maximum of unity. A phantom containing a combination of 4 basis materials (water, iodine, gadolinium, calcium) was scanned using a photon-counting detector. Iodine and gadolinium were chosen because of their common use as contrast agents in CT imaging. Scan data was …

    Date Published:
    2020-08
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  • Author(s):
    Prateek Mehta, Patrick Barboun, Yannick Engelmann, David Go, Annemie Bogaerts, William Schneider, Jason Hicks
    Abstract:

    We explore the consequences of nonthermal plasma-activation on product yields in catalytic ammonia synthesis, a reaction that is equilibrium-limited at elevated temperatures. We employ a minimal microkinetic model that incorporates the influence of plasma-activation on N2 dissociation rates to predict NH3 yields into and across the equilibrium-limited regime. NH3 yields are predicted to exceed bulk thermodynamic equilibrium limits on materials that are thermal-rate-limited by N2 dissociation….

    Date Published:
    2020-05
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  • Author(s):
    Paul Plachinda, Michael Hopkins, Sergei Rouvimov, Raj Solanki
    Abstract:

    We have employed atomic layer deposition to produce uniform films of Bi 2Se 3, which is a 3D topological insulator (TI), over 5 cm × 5 cm SiO 2-coated Si substrates. The crystalline properties of the films were characterized via Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, which confirmed the high quality of the films. The TI properties were examined using Hall bridge structures and recording magnetoresistance at 1.9 K. A weak an…

    Date Published:
    2020-01
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  • Author(s):
    Leo, Laura S., Fernando, Harindra J. S., Otarola-Bustos, Sebastian F., Blomquist, Byron W., McCaffrey, Katherine L., Fairall, Christopher W., Wilczak, James M., Grachev, Andrey A.
    Abstract:

    Measurements of the surface energy fluxes (turbulent and radiative) and other ancillary atmospheric/soil parameters made in the Columbia River Basin (Oregon) in an area of complex terrain during a 10-month long portion of the second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP 2) field campaign are used to study the surface energy budget (SEB) and surface fluxes over different temporal scales. This study analyzes and discusses SEB closure based on half-hourly, daily, monthly, seasonal, and sub-ann…

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  • Author(s):
    Monaghan, G. William, Schurr, Mark R., Wilson, Jeremy J., Herrmann, Edward W., Pike, Matthew
    Abstract:

    Mississippian mounds in the south-eastern and mid-continental United States often contain multiple construction stages and a diverse array of features. Investigating mound construction with excavation is expensive, logistically challenging, and sometimes politically impossible. Three mounds at the Angel site (12VG1), a Mississippian village (ca ad 1100-1450) in the lower Ohio River Valley, were investigated with non-invasive geophysical and minimally invasive geoarchaeological methods. We com…

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  • Author(s):
    Schurr, Mark R., McLeester, Madeleine
    Abstract:

    This article reports on recent findings from the ongoing archaeological project at the single- component early seventeenth-century Huber phase site, Middle Grant Creek (11WI2739), located at Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie in Will County, Illinois. Excavations and geophysical surveys conducted over the past four years are yielding valuable data that are expanding our understandings of this critical period just prior to European colonialism. Findings have revealed a wide range of protohisto…

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  • Author(s):
    Waller, Lance A., Astete, Helvio, Scott, Thomas W., Espana, Guido, Elson, William H., Cavany, Sean M., Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M., Morrison, Amy C., Lloyd, Alun L., Reiner, Robert C., Jr., Perkins, T. Alex, Kitron, Uriel
    Abstract:

    Author summary Over half of the world’s population is at risk of infection by dengue virus (DENV) from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. While most infected people experience mild or asymptomatic infections, dengue can cause severe symptoms, such as hemorrhage, shock, and death. A vaccine against dengue exists, but it can increase the risk of severe disease in people who have not been previously infected by one of the four DENV serotypes. In many places, therefore, the best currently available wa…

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  • Author(s):
    Achee, Nicole L., Pitzer, Virginia E., Perkins, T. Alex, Wagman, Joseph M., ten Bosch, Quirine A., Flegg, Jennifer A., Castro-Llanos, Fanny, Grieco, John P.
    Abstract:

    Spatial repellents (SRs) reduce human-mosquito contact by preventing mosquito entrance into human-occupied spaces and interfering with host-seeking and blood-feeding. A new model to synthesize experimental data on the effects of transfluthrin onAedes aegyptiexplores how SR effects interact to impact the epidemiology of diseases vectored by these mosquitoes. Our results indicate that the greatest impact on force of infection is expected to derive from the chemical’s lethal effect but delay…

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  • Author(s):
    Cano, Natalia, Rohr, Jason R., Roznik, Elizabeth A., Surbaugh, Kerri L.
    Abstract:

    Identifying the mechanisms underlying biological invasions can inform the management of invasive species. The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) suggests that invasive species have a competitive advantage in their introduced range because they leave behind many of their predators and parasites from their native range, allowing them to shift resources from defences to growth, reproduction and dispersal. Many studies have demonstrated that invasive species have fewer parasites than their native cou…

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  • Author(s):
    Li, Ping, Hapairai, Limb K., Lesnik, Alexandra, Wei, Na, Sun, Longhua, Scheel, Nicholas D., Mysore, Keshava, Scheel, Max P., Igiede, Jessica, Wang, Chien-Wei, Severson, David W., Duman-Scheel, Molly
    Abstract:

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), key regulators of a variety of critical biological processes, are attractive targets for insecticide development. Given the importance of these receptors in many organisms, including humans, it is critical that novel pesticides directed against GPCRs are designed to be species-specific. Here, we present characterization of an interfering RNA pesticide (IRP) targeting the mosquito GPCR-encoding dopamine 1 receptor (dop1) genes. A small interfering RNA corre…

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  • Author(s):
    Egan, Scott P., Ragland, Gregory J., Meyers, Peter J., Powell, Thomas H. Q., Hood, Glen R., Feder, Jeffrey L., Doellman, Meredith M., Nosil, Patrik
    Abstract:

    Studies assessing the predictability of evolution typically focus on short-term adaptation within populations or the repeatability of change among lineages. A missing consideration in speciation research is to determine whether natural selection predictably transforms standing genetic variation within populations into differences between species. Here, we test whether and how host-related selection on diapause timing associates with genome-wide differentiation during ecological speciation by …

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