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  • Author(s):
    Eric Chaisson
    Abstract:

    A new way is proposed to thermodynamically gauge the evolving complexity of nation-states and their growing cities. Energy rate density is a useful metric to track the evolution of energy budgets, which help facilitate how well or badly human society trends toward winning or losing. The fates of nations and their cities are unknown, their success is not assured. Those nations and cities with rising per-capita energy usage while developing and those that are nearly flat while already developed…

    Date Published:
    2022
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Harvey Brown
    Abstract:

    This paper is concerned with the nature of probability in physics, and in quantum mechanics in particular. It starts with a brief discussion of the evolution of Itamar Pitowsky’s thinking about probability in quantum theory from 1994 to 2008, and the role of Gleason’s 1957 theorem in his derivation of the Born Rule. Pitowsky’s defence of probability therein as a logic of partial belief leads us into a broader discussion of probability in physics, in which the existence of objectiv…

    Date Published:
    2020
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Bradley D. Smith
    Abstract:

    A broad array of imaging and diagnostic technologies employs fluorophore-labeled antibodies for biomarker visualization, an experimental technique known as immunofluorescence. Significant performance advantages, such as higher signal-to-noise ratio, are gained if the appended fluorophore emits near-infrared (NIR) light with a wavelength >700 nm. However, the currently available NIR fluorophore antibody conjugates are known to exhibit significant limitations, including low chemical stabilit…

    Date Published:
    2021-02
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Allen G. Oliver, Bradley D. Smith
    Abstract:

    A new supramolecular paradigm is presented for reliable capture and co-precipitation of haloauric acids (HAuX4) from organic solvents or water. Two classes of acyclic organic compounds act as complementary receptors (tectons) by forming two sets of directional non-covalent interactions, (a) hydrogen bonding between amide (or amidinium) NH residues and the electronegative X ligands on the AuX4 @, and (b) electrostatic stacking of the electron deficient Au center against the face of an aromatic…

    Date Published:
    2020-06
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Dong-Hao Li, Cynthia L. Schreiber, Bradley D. Smith
    Abstract:

    The near-infrared window of fluorescent heptamethine cyanine dyes greatly facilitates biological imaging because there is deep penetration of the light and negligible background fluorescence. However, dye instability, aggregation, and poor pharmacokinetics are current drawbacks that limit performance and the scope of possible applications. All these limitations are simultaneously overcome with a new molecular design strategy that produces a charge balanced and sterically shielded fluorochrome…

    Date Published:
    2020-07
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Canjia Zhai, Cynthia L. Schreiber, Sasha Padilla-Coley, Allen G. Oliver, Bradley D. Smith
    Abstract:

    A general synthetic method creates a new class of covalently connected, self-threaded, fluorescent molecular probes with figure-eight topology, an encapsulated deep-red fluorophore, and two peripheral peptide loops. The globular molecular shape and rigidified peptide loops enhance imaging performance by promoting water solubility, eliminating probe self-aggregation, and increasing probe stability. Moreover, the peptide loops determine the affinity and selectivity for targets within complex bi…

    Date Published:
    2020-01
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Canjia Zhai, Cynthia L. Schreiber, Sasha Padilla-Coley, Allen G. Oliver, Bradley D. Smith
    Abstract:

    A general synthetic method creates a new class of covalently connected, self-threaded, fluorescent molecular probes with figure-eight topology, an encapsulated deep-red fluorophore, and two peripheral peptide loops. The globular molecular shape and rigidified peptide loops enhance imaging performance by promoting water solubility, eliminating probe self-aggregation, and increasing probe stability. Moreover, the peptide loops determine the affinity and selectivity for targets within complex bi…

    Date Published:
    2020-01
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Dong-Hao Li, Cynthia L. Schreiber, Bradley D. Smith
    Abstract:

    The near-infrared window of fluorescent heptamethine cyanine dyes greatly facilitates biological imaging because there is deep penetration of the light and negligible background fluorescence. However, dye instability, aggregation, and poor pharmacokinetics are current drawbacks that limit performance and the scope of possible applications. All these limitations are simultaneously overcome with a new molecular design strategy that produces a charge balanced and sterically shielded fluorochrome…

    Date Published:
    2020-07
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Bradley D. Smith
    Abstract:

    Macrocyclic hosts have long been used for guest encapsulation, and recently a new application has emerged; employment as supramolecular elements for capture and recovery of gold through host/guest co-precipitation. The guests are square-planar tetrahaloaurate anions, practically important gold complexes with a capacity to engage in non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding and Au–! interactions. The successful macrocyclic hosts for co-precipitation include cyclodextrins, cucurbituril…

    Date Published:
    2021-01
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Janeala J. Morsby, Madushani Dharmarwardana, Hannah McGarraugh, Bradley D. Smith
    Abstract:

    A tetralactam macrocycle acts as a novel supramolecular adjuvant to capture a released resorufin dye and create a higher contrasting yellow/blue color change for enhanced naked eye interpretation of a colorimetric indicator assay.

    Date Published:
    2020-07
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Dong-Hao Li, Bradley D. Smith
    Abstract:

    Indocyanine Green (ICG) is a clinically approved near-infrared fluorescent dye that is used extensively for various imaging and diagnostic procedures. One drawback with ICG is its instability in water, which means that reconstituted clinical doses have to be used very shortly after preparation. Two deuterated versions of ICG were prepared with deuterium atoms on the heptamethine chain, and the spectral, physiochemical, and photostability properties were quantified. A notable mechanistic findi…

    Date Published:
    2021-09
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Cynthia L. Schreiber, Canjia Zhai, Bradley D. Smith
    Abstract:

    “Targeted fluorescent molecular probes are useful for cell microscopy, diagnostics, and biological imaging. An emerging discovery paradigm is to screen libraries of fluorescent molecules and identify hit compounds with interesting targeting properties. However, a current limitation with this approach is the lack of fluorescent molecular scaffolds that can produce libraries of probe candidates with three dimen- sional globular shape, chiral centers, and constrained conformation. Th…

    Date Published:
    2021-03
    Record Visibility:
    Public