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  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    One of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous for its well-preserved ruins of ancient Lankan civilization; it was the capital of Sinhalese kings of Ceylon from the 4th century BCE, abandoned in 11th century CE due to Tamil invasions. The city is sacred to Buddhists (introduced to the country ca. 250 BCE) and has a sacred Bo tree (the Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi), believed to have grown from a sapling of the original tree where Buddha found enlightenment. Thuparama Dagoba, the oldest shrine in Sri …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Pre-Columbian Maya site in the Puuc region of the Northern Maya Lowlands of Yucatán, Mexico. It flourished c. AD 800-c. 1000, at the end of the Late Classic period (c. AD 600-c. 900) and the beginning of the Early Post-Classic period (c. AD 900-c. 1200), but was also occupied earlier. Among the best-known structures, the names of which are all post-Spanish Conquest attributions, are the Palace (or House) of the Governor, the Temple (or Pyramid) of the Magician (El Adivino) and the Nunnery Qua…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Characteristics of the Puuc style include limestone construction, often with smooth wall surfaces; plaster (stucco) finishes; masks and other representations of the rain god Chac (Chaac); and the prevalence of styling along horizontal lines.

    Pre-Columbian Maya site in the Puuc region of the Northern Maya Lowlands of Yucatán, Mexico. It flourished c. AD 800-c. 1000, at the end of the Late Classic period (c. AD 600-c. 900) and the beginning of the Early Post-Classic period (c. AD 900-c. 1200),…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Temple of the Sun, built in 692 by Chan-Bahlum (reigned 684-702), the son of Pacal. The roofs and roof-combs were all sculptured in stucco, once painted in brilliant reds, blues and yellow, depicting such deities as the rain god Cauac (on the Temple of the Cross) and a seated God K flanked by serpents (on the Temple of the Sun).

    Site of Pre-Columbian Maya ceremonial centre in the foothills of the Sierra de Palenque mountains, Chiapas, Mexico. During the 7th and 8th centuries AD Palenque was …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The Temple of the Feathered Serpent has fine stylized depictions of that deity in a style which includes apparent influences of Teotihuacan and Maya art. It has been speculated that Xochicalco may have had a community of artists from other parts of Mesoamerica. Excavations were conducted by Leopoldo Batres from 1908 to 1910, when the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent was restored

    Pre-Columbian site in western Morelos, Mexico. The site and region were occupied continuously from c. 900 BC, but …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Rievaulx Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey located in the village of Rievaulx, near Helmsley in North Yorkshire, England. Rievaulx was founded in 1132 by Walter Espec, a powerful northern baron and landowner, with monks from Clairvaux in eastern France. The Abbey began to decline in the late 13th century. By 1380 only fifteen monks and three lay brothers are mentioned. It was once one of the wealthiest abbeys in England and was dissolved by Henry VIII of England in 1538. In 1758 the still-ex…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The late 12th-century refectory measured 37.8 by 11.9 m and was one of the largest of its type in England. The interior was decorated by blind arcades alternating with 21 large lancet windows, which poured light on the monks as they assembled for their daily meal. Access from the cloister was through a trefoil-headed doorway flanked by blind arcading and fronted by lead-lined troughs, in which the monks washed their hands before meals.

    Rievaulx Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey located in t…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Kenilworth Castle is notable for the quality of its architecture, with phases of building from Norman through to Tudor times. In 1265 the medieval castle at Kenilworth was granted by Henry III to his second son, the Earl of Lancaster, and for the next three centuries it was passed back and forth between the crown and various noble families. In 1563 the castle was granted by Queen Elizabeth to her favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, who decided to convert the castle into a great house…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    From ca. 1200 until its dissolution in 1539 St. Mary’s Abbey was the richest monastic house in the north of England. This is attested by the remains of its 13th-, 14th- and 15th-century buildings (now in ruins). The church chancel is Romanesque, but had the most important extant Early Gothic sculpture in England (now in York Museum). The eastern arm of the church (begun 1270) was a nine-bay aisled rectangle of a locally well-established type. Other buildings include a chapter house and th…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The eastern transept of the abbey church, completed ca. 1247.

    Fountains Abbey was founded in 1132 following a dispute at St. Mary’s Abbey in York. Thirteen exiled Benedictine monks were supplied with a site in the valley of the River Skell and joined the Cistercian order in 1135. The land was well watered, both by the River Skell and by six springs, hence the name St. Mary of the Springs, latinized to ‘de Fontibus’. Along with Rievaulx, it was the most important Cistercian abbey …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, “Place of Fortresses”), is the modern name for the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion, and is located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia). The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and equidistant from the Dardanelles. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob. The settlement began as an Early Bronze Age citadel in the …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Ephesus [Ephesos] was one of 12 ancient Ionian cities, located in fertile plain near the mouth of the Cayster river; conquered by Persians; democracy granted by Alexander the Great; was center of cult of Diana; passed to Rome; an early Christian center, visited by St. Paul. Site of an important Classical city on the west coast of Turkey, about 2 km south-west of modern Selcuk. It has been occupied since perhaps as early as the 10th century BCE, and its Late Classical Temple of Artemis (Artemi…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01