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  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Site of Pre-Columbian Maya and Toltec city in the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico. It flourished during the Post-Classic period (ca. 900-1521 CE). Chichén Itzá (‘mouth of the well of the Itzá’) is named after its ‘Sacred Cenote’, a natural limestone sinkhole that served as a focus for pilgrimages and sacrificial offerings. Close artistic correspondences between Chichén Itzá and Tula in Hidalgo have suggested that the Central-Highland Mesoamericans invaded Yucatán and forced the loca…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Temple of the Sun, built in 692 by Chan-Bahlum (reigned 684-702), the son of Pacal. The roofs and roof-combs were all sculptured in stucco, once painted in brilliant reds, blues and yellow, depicting such deities as the rain god Cauac (on the Temple of the Cross) and a seated God K flanked by serpents (on the Temple of the Sun).

    Site of Pre-Columbian Maya ceremonial centre in the foothills of the Sierra de Palenque mountains, Chiapas, Mexico. During the 7th and 8th centuries AD Palenque was …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Structure 33, in the Central Acropolis, has been described as a masterpiece in stone and was probably dedicated in 756 by Bird Jaguar IV. The structure overlooks the plaza and the river and would have been prominent to river traffic in the 8th century. It has plain lower walls with three doorways, each of the which supports a well preserved lintel (Yaxchilan Lintels 1 to 3).

    Most of the known buildings and monuments have been dated to the Late Classic period (ca. 600–900). The Late Classic a…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The Temple of the Feathered Serpent has fine stylized depictions of that deity in a style which includes apparent influences of Teotihuacan and Maya art. It has been speculated that Xochicalco may have had a community of artists from other parts of Mesoamerica. Excavations were conducted by Leopoldo Batres from 1908 to 1910, when the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent was restored

    Pre-Columbian site in western Morelos, Mexico. The site and region were occupied continuously from c. 900 BC, but …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Site of Pre-Columbian Maya and Toltec city in the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico. It flourished during the Post-Classic period (ca. 900-1521 CE). Chichén Itzá (‘mouth of the well of the Itzá’) is named after its ‘Sacred Cenote’, a natural limestone sinkhole that served as a focus for pilgrimages and sacrificial offerings. Close artistic correspondences between Chichén Itzá and Tula in Hidalgo have suggested that the Central-Highland Mesoamericans invaded Yucatán and forced the loca…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Site of Pre-Columbian Maya and Toltec city in the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico. It flourished during the Post-Classic period (ca. 900-1521 CE). Chichén Itzá (‘mouth of the well of the Itzá’) is named after its ‘Sacred Cenote’, a natural limestone sinkhole that served as a focus for pilgrimages and sacrificial offerings. Close artistic correspondences between Chichén Itzá and Tula in Hidalgo have suggested that the Central-Highland Mesoamericans invaded Yucatán and forced the loca…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    One of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous for its well-preserved ruins of ancient Lankan civilization; it was the capital of Sinhalese kings of Ceylon from the 4th century BCE, abandoned in 11th century CE due to Tamil invasions. The city is sacred to Buddhists (introduced to the country ca. 250 BCE) and has a sacred Bo tree (the Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi), believed to have grown from a sapling of the original tree where Buddha found enlightenment. Thuparama Dagoba, the oldest shrine in Sri …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The capitolium is a Roman temple from the 2nd century CE, principally dedicated to Rome’s protective triad: Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno Regina and Minerva Augusta. It has a secondary dedication to the emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius; judging by this reference, the capitol must have been completed in 166-167 CE. Thomas d'Arcos identified the capitol as a temple of Jupiter in the 17th century. The walls, executed in opus africanum style, and the entablature of the portico we…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Porch of the caryatids on the left (west end of the south side)

    The third great 5th-century BCE marble building on the Acropolis is known as the Erechtheion, though this name (Erechtheos was a mythical king of Athens) has been challenged. Since the Parthenon stands immediately to the south, the architect of the Erechtheion did not attempt to make the building compete directly with this outstanding example of the Doric order, and instead chose the more ornate and delicate Ionic order. The bui…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Comment says this slide is flopped

    During the second half of the 5th century BC the Acropolis became the focal point of the great building programme initiated by Pericles and was adorned with a group of magnificent marble buildings in honour of Athena. This temple dedicated to Athena Parthenos (‘maiden’) was the first and by far most impressive of the new structures. Inscriptions recording its building accounts show that it was started in 447 BC and that construction was sufficiently…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The third great 5th-century BCE marble building on the Acropolis is known as the Erechtheion, though this name (Erechtheos was a mythical king of Athens) has been challenged. Since the Parthenon stands immediately to the south, the architect of the Erechtheion did not attempt to make the building compete directly with this outstanding example of the Doric order, and instead chose the more ornate and delicate Ionic order. The building has an unusually complex plan. Its steeply sloping site als…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The central hall had Doric hexastyle façades facing east and west.

    This was the second building on the Acropolis constructed as part of the Periclean programme. According to building accounts and Plutarch’s Pericles (XIII.7), the Propylaia or great gateway (propylon) was begun in 437 BC, and work apparently stopped in 432 BC. The architect was Mnesikles. As constructed, the building consists of a large central hall flanked by wings to the south-west and north-west. Even as built, the Pro…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01