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  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Site of Pre-Columbian Maya and Toltec city in the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico. It flourished during the Post-Classic period (ca. 900-1521 CE). Chichén Itzá (‘mouth of the well of the Itzá’) is named after its ‘Sacred Cenote’, a natural limestone sinkhole that served as a focus for pilgrimages and sacrificial offerings. Close artistic correspondences between Chichén Itzá and Tula in Hidalgo have suggested that the Central-Highland Mesoamericans invaded Yucatán and forced the loca…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    One of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous for its well-preserved ruins of ancient Lankan civilization; it was the capital of Sinhalese kings of Ceylon from the 4th century BCE, abandoned in 11th century CE due to Tamil invasions. The city is sacred to Buddhists (introduced to the country ca. 250 BCE) and has a sacred Bo tree (the Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi), believed to have grown from a sapling of the original tree where Buddha found enlightenment. Thuparama Dagoba, the oldest shrine in Sri …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Site of Pre-Columbian Maya and Toltec city in the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico. It flourished during the Post-Classic period (ca. 900-1521 CE). Chichén Itzá (‘mouth of the well of the Itzá’) is named after its ‘Sacred Cenote’, a natural limestone sinkhole that served as a focus for pilgrimages and sacrificial offerings. Close artistic correspondences between Chichén Itzá and Tula in Hidalgo have suggested that the Central-Highland Mesoamericans invaded Yucatán and forced the loca…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Site of Pre-Columbian Maya and Toltec city in the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico. It flourished during the Post-Classic period (ca. 900-1521 CE). Chichén Itzá (‘mouth of the well of the Itzá’) is named after its ‘Sacred Cenote’, a natural limestone sinkhole that served as a focus for pilgrimages and sacrificial offerings. Close artistic correspondences between Chichén Itzá and Tula in Hidalgo have suggested that the Central-Highland Mesoamericans invaded Yucatán and forced the loca…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Structure 33, in the Central Acropolis, has been described as a masterpiece in stone and was probably dedicated in 756 by Bird Jaguar IV. The structure overlooks the plaza and the river and would have been prominent to river traffic in the 8th century. It has plain lower walls with three doorways, each of the which supports a well preserved lintel (Yaxchilan Lintels 1 to 3).

    Most of the known buildings and monuments have been dated to the Late Classic period (ca. 600–900). The Late Classic a…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Temple of the Sun, built in 692 by Chan-Bahlum (reigned 684-702), the son of Pacal. The roofs and roof-combs were all sculptured in stucco, once painted in brilliant reds, blues and yellow, depicting such deities as the rain god Cauac (on the Temple of the Cross) and a seated God K flanked by serpents (on the Temple of the Sun).

    Site of Pre-Columbian Maya ceremonial centre in the foothills of the Sierra de Palenque mountains, Chiapas, Mexico. During the 7th and 8th centuries AD Palenque was …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The Temple of the Feathered Serpent has fine stylized depictions of that deity in a style which includes apparent influences of Teotihuacan and Maya art. It has been speculated that Xochicalco may have had a community of artists from other parts of Mesoamerica. Excavations were conducted by Leopoldo Batres from 1908 to 1910, when the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent was restored

    Pre-Columbian site in western Morelos, Mexico. The site and region were occupied continuously from c. 900 BC, but …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The capitolium is a Roman temple from the 2nd century CE, principally dedicated to Rome’s protective triad: Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno Regina and Minerva Augusta. It has a secondary dedication to the emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius; judging by this reference, the capitol must have been completed in 166-167 CE. Thomas d'Arcos identified the capitol as a temple of Jupiter in the 17th century. The walls, executed in opus africanum style, and the entablature of the portico we…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The third great 5th-century BCE marble building on the Acropolis is known as the Erechtheion, though this name (Erechtheos was a mythical king of Athens) has been challenged. Since the Parthenon stands immediately to the south, the architect of the Erechtheion did not attempt to make the building compete directly with this outstanding example of the Doric order, and instead chose the more ornate and delicate Ionic order. The building has an unusually complex plan. Its steeply sloping site als…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The Sanctuary of Hera contains two temples, popularly misnamed the “Basilica” and the “Temple of Neptune”. The second Temple of Hera probably dates from ca. 460 BCE. It is Doric order, and there are two rows of internal columns, a mainland Greek feature that became more widespread in Sicily and South Italy at this time.

    Ancient city of Paestum was established by Greek colonists from Sybaris, who called it Poseidonia; taken by Lucanians 5th century BCE and by Romans 273 BC…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    On the highest point of the town (some way from the other temples), in the Sanctuary of Athena, is the temple of Athena. It was built in about 500 BCE, and was for some time incorrectly thought to have been dedicated to Ceres. The architecture is transitional, being partly in the Ionic mode and partly early Doric.

    Ancient city of Paestum was established by Greek colonists from Sybaris, who called it Poseidonia; taken by Lucanians 5th century BCE and by Romans 273 BCE; was famous for its rose…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The Sanctuary of Hera contains two temples, popularly misnamed the “Basilica” and the “Temple of Neptune”. The “Basilica”, or first Temple of Hera (ca. 550-525 BCE), is a pseudodipteral Doric building with 9 x 18 columns and measuring 24.51 x 54.27 m. Its odd number of façade columns seems to be an unusual device to make the plan more regular.

    Ancient city of Paestum was established by Greek colonists from Sybaris, who called it Poseidonia; taken by Lucanians 5t…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01