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  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The real interest of this temple lies in its interior where giant engaged columns running down the long north and south sides articulate an arcade below and niches crowned by triangular pediments above.

    In 16 BCE Baalbek became a Roman colony with the name Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Heliopolitana. The ‘Temple of Bacchus’, largely built in the 2nd century AD, lies parallel to the Temple of Jupiter but is set in a separate courtyard. It is a smaller structure (66 x 35 m), although sti…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Between 71 and 75 CE the splendid Templum Pacis was built on the site of the old public market to commemorate the victory in Judea by Vespasian (reigned 69-79). The temple was connected to the Imperial Fora, to which it formed an appendix on the southeast side, and was surrounded by a monumental porticoed square resembling a forum, although only at the end of the Empire was it called the Forum Pacis.

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The largest precinct of Karnak is that of Amun, which is surrounded by a rectangular enclosure wall, orientated to the four points of the compass. This wall, built by Nectanebo I (reigned 380-362 BCE), was 2.5 km in length, with four monumental and four secondary gates. Inside it there are the levelled remains of previous ramparts, which show that the sacred precincts had been extended. The Temple of Amun was built on a mound that symbolized the first land to emerge from the primordial swamp….

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Abydos (Araba al-Madfuna) was the necropolis of This, the seat of the first two Egyptian dynasties. As the country’s most ancient capital, it remained significant throughout Egyptian history, becoming the principal cult centre of Osiris, a funerary deity who embodied the tradition of kingship. It was visited by pilgrims until Roman times (30 BCE-395 CE). The temple complex of Seti I [Sethos I, died 1279 BCE] was built on entirely new ground half a mile to the south. The underground cenota…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Abydos (Araba al-Madfuna) was the necropolis of This, the seat of the first two Egyptian dynasties. As the country’s most ancient capital, it remained significant throughout Egyptian history, becoming the principal cult centre of Osiris, a funerary deity who embodied the tradition of kingship. It was visited by pilgrims until Roman times (30 BCE-395 CE). The temple complex of Seti I [Sethos I, died 1279 BCE] was built on entirely new ground half a mile to the south. The underground cenota…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Karnak was the religious centre of ancient Thebes and site of a temple complex, covering 100 ha on the east bank of the Nile. Karnak was linked inseparably with Thebes, the Egyptian empire and the concept of pharaoh’s divine power. The god Amun-Re was thought to send out from Karnak an energy on which depended the rhythm of the seasons, the Nile floods, crops, fertility and Egyptian order, for which his son the pharaoh stood as guarantor. Amun was pre-eminent among the several divinities …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Edfu [ancient Egyptian, Behdet or Djeba; Greek, Apollinopolis; now Idfu] is the site of a temple dedicated to Horus begun by Ptolemy III Euergetes 237 BCE. The Temple of Horus, the most completely preserved of all Egyptian temples, dates mainly to the Ptolemaic period. Horus of Behdet was a divine metaphor for the living king who, having vanquished the enemy, ruled as the victorious winged sun-disc. It was therefore especially appropriate and expedient for the Greek rulers of the Ptolemaic pe…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01