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  • Author(s):
    J.Y. Son, H.M. Choi, M.L. Miranda, M.L. Bell
    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although previous literature suggested beneficial impacts of residential greenness on the association between heat exposure and several health outcomes, research is very limited for birth outcomes. We investigated the association between exposure to heat/heat waves during the last week of gestation and preterm birth (PTB) in North Carolina (NC) from 2003 to 2014. We evaluated disparities by residential greenness, urbanicity, and socioeconomic status (SES) in this associati…

    Date Published:
    2021-10
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    D.R. Kowal, M. Bravo, H. Leong, A. Bui, R.J. Griffin, K.B. Ensor, M.L. Miranda
    Abstract:

    Social and environmental stressors are crucial factors in child development. However, there exists a multitude of measurable social and environmental factors—the effects of which may be cumulative, interactive, or null. Using a comprehensive cohort of children in North Carolina, we study the impact of social and environmental variables on 4th end-of-grade exam scores in reading and mathematics. To identify the essential factors that predict these educational outcomes, we design new tools for …

    Date Published:
    2021-09
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    M.A. Bravo, M. Leong, A.E. Gelfand, M.L. Miranda
    Abstract:

    We develop a local, spatial measure of educational isolation (EI) and characterize the relationship between EI and our previously developed measure of racial isolation (RI). EI measures the extent to which non-college educated individuals are exposed primarily to other non-college educated individuals. To characterize how the RI-EI relationship varies across space, we propose a novel measure of local correlation. Using birth records from the State of Michigan (2005–2012), we estimate associat…

    Date Published:
    2021-08
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    J.L. Warren, M.L. Miranda, J.L. Tootoo, C.E. Osgood, M.L. Bell
    Abstract:

    We introduce spatial (DLfuse) and spatiotemporal (DLfuseST) distributed lag data fusion methods for predicting point-level ambient air pollution concentrations, using, as input, gridded average pollution estimates from a deterministic numerical air quality model. The methods incorporate predictive information from grid cells surrounding the prediction location of interest and are shown to collapse to existing downscaling approaches when this information adds no benefit. The spatial lagged par…

    Date Published:
    2021-03
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    C.K. Ward-Caviness, W.E. Kraus, C. Blach, C. Haynes, E. Dowdy, M.L. Miranda, R.B. Devlin, D. Diaz-Sanchez, W.E. Cascio, S. Mukherjee, C. Stallings, L.A. Smith, S.G. Gregory, S.H. Shah, E.R. Hauser, L.M. Neas.
    Abstract:

    Background: The relationship between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and risk factors for cardiovascular disease needs to be better understood in order to address the adverse impact of air pollution on human health. Objective: We examined associations between roadway proximity and traffic exposure zones, as markers of TRAP exposure, and metabolic biomarkers for cardiovascular disease risk in a cohort of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional…

    Date Published:
    2015-03-24
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Z.J. Eapen, L.A. McCoy, G.C. Fonarow, C.W. Yancy, M.L. Miranda, E.D. Peterson, R.M. Califf, A.F. Hernandez
    Abstract:

    Background—An individual’s socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with health outcomes and mortality, yet it is unknown whether accounting for SES can improve risk-adjustment models for 30-day outcomes among Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) beneficiaries hospitalized with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results—We linked clinical data on hospitalized HF patients in the Get With The Guidelines®-HF™ database (01/2005–12/2011) with CMS claims and county-level SES data from t…

    Date Published:
    2015-03-06
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    S.E. Spratt, B. Batch, L. Davis, A. Dunham, M. Easterling, M. Feinglos, B. Granger, G. Harris, M. Lyn, P. Maxson, B. Shah, B. Strauss, T. Thomas, R. Califf, M.L. Miranda
    Abstract:

    Objective - The Durham Diabetes Coalition (DDC) was established in response to escalating rates of disability and death related to type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities and persons of low socioeconomic status in Durham County, North Carolina. We describe a community-based demonstration project, informed by a geographic health information system (GHIS), that aims to improve health and healthcare delivery for Durham County residents with diabetes.

    Materials and…

    Date Published:
    2015-03-01
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    S.E. Edwards, B. Strauss, M.L. Miranda
    Abstract:

    Using geographic information systems to link administrative databases with demographic, social, and environmental data allows researchers to use spatial approaches to explore relationships between exposures and health. Traditionally, spatial analysis in public health has focused on the county, ZIP code, or tract level because of limitations to geocoding at highly resolved scales. Using 2005 birth and death data from North Carolina, we examine our ability to geocode population-level datasets a…

    Date Published:
    2014-08-01
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    B.W. Strauss, E.M. Valentiner, S. Bhattacharya, M.M. Smerek, A.A. Dunham, L.K. Newby, M.L. Miranda
    Abstract:

    This paper highlights methods for using geospatial analysis to assess, enhance, and improve recruitment efforts to ensure representativeness in study populations. We apply these methods to the Measurement to Understand Reclassification of Disease of Cabarrus/Kannapolis (MURDOCK) study, a longitudinal population health study focused on the city of Kannapolis and Cabarrus County, NC. Although efforts have been made to recruit a participant registry that is representative of the 18 ZIP code catc…

    Date Published:
    2014-06-15
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    S.E. Edwards, P. Maxson, M.L. Miranda, R.C. Fry.
    Abstract:

    The objectives of this study were to examine cadmium (Cd) levels and relationships to demographics in an observational, prospective pregnancy cohort study in Durham County, North Carolina. Multivariable models were used to compare blood Cd levels across demographic characteristics. The relative risk of having a blood Cd level that exceeds the US national median (0.32 μg/l) was estimated. Overall, >60% of the women had an elevated (>0.32 μg/l) blood Cd level. Controlling for confounding …

    Date Published:
    2014-06-02
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    B. Neelon, A. Gelfand, M.L. Miranda
    Abstract:

    Motivated by a study exploring geographic disparities in test scores among fourth graders in North Carolina, we develop a multivariate mixture model for the spatial analysis of correlated continuous outcomes. The responses are modelled as a finite mixture of multivariate normal distributions, which accommodates a wide range of marginal response distributions and allows investigators to examine covariate effects within subpopulations of interest. The model has a hierarchical structure incorpor…

    Date Published:
    2014-05-27
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    B. Neelon, R. Anthopolos, M.L. Miranda
    Abstract:

    Motivated by a study examining geographic variation in birth outcomes, we develop a spatial bivariate probit model for the joint analysis of preterm birth and low birth weight. The model uses a hierarchical structure to incorporate individual and areal-level information, as well as spatially dependent random effects for each spatial unit. Because rates of preterm birth and low birth weight are likely to be correlated within geographic regions, we model the spatial random effects via a bivaria…

    Date Published:
    2014-04-01
    Record Visibility:
    Public