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  • Author(s):
    Harwood, Valerie J., Rohr, Jason R., Civitello, David J., Nguyen, Karena H., Boersch-Supan, Philipp H., Mendiola, Sandra Y., Hartman, Rachel B.
    Abstract:

    Temperature constrains the transmission of many pathogens. Interventions that target temperature-sensitive life stages, such as vector controlmeasures that kill intermediate hosts, could shift the thermal optimum of transmission, thereby altering seasonal disease dynamics and rendering interventions less effective at certain times of the year and with global climate change. To test these hypotheses, we integrated an epidemiological model of schistosomiasis with empirically determined temperat…

    Date Published:
    2021-03-16
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Rohr, Jason R., Cohen, Jeremy M.
    Abstract:

    Climate change is expected to have complex effects on infectious diseases, causing some to increase, others to decrease, and many to shift their distributions. There have been several important advances in understanding the role of climate and climate change on wildlife and human infectious disease dynamics over the past several years. This essay examines 3 major areas of advancement, which include improvements to mechanistic disease models, investigations into the importance of climate varia…

    Date Published:
    2020-11-01
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    Public
  • Author(s):
    Roznik, Elizabeth A., Cano, Natalia, Surbaugh, Kerri L., Ramsay, Chloe T., Rohr, Jason R.
    Abstract:

    Introduced species pose a threat to biodiversity, and ecological and physiological factors are important in determining whether an introduced species becomes successfully established in a new region. Locomotor performance is one such factor that can influence the abundance and distribution of an introduced species. We investigated the effects of temperature and parasitism by the intestinal nematode Aplectana hamatospicula on the maximum jump distance and endurance in one invasive and two nati…

    Date Published:
    2021-03-01
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Rohr, Jason R., Ramsay, Chloe
    Abstract:

    Priority effect theory, a foundational concept from community ecology, states that the order and timing of species arrival during species assembly can affect species composition. Although this theory has been applied to co-infecting parasite species, it has almost always been with a single time lag between co-infecting parasites. Thus, how the timing of parasite species arrival affects co-infections and disease remains poorly understood. To address this gap in the literature, we exposed postm…

    Date Published:
    2021-03-01
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Rohr, Jason R., Ramsay, Chloe
    Abstract:

    Priority effect theory, a foundational concept from community ecology, states that the order and timing of species arrival during species assembly can affect species composition. Although this theory has been applied to co-infecting parasite species, it has almost always been with a single time lag between co-infecting parasites. Thus, how the timing of parasite species arrival affects co-infections and disease remains poorly understood. To address this gap in the literature, we exposed postm…

    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Lund, Andrea J., Rohr, Jason R., Lopez-Carr, David, Sokolow, Susanne H., De Leo, Giulio A.
    Abstract:

    Dams enable the production of food and renewable energy, making them a crucial tool for both economic development and climate change adaptation in low- and middle-income countries. However, dams may also disrupt traditional livelihood systems and increase the transmission of vector- and water-borne pathogens. These livelihood and health impacts diminish the benefits of dams to rural populations dependent on rivers, as hydrological and ecological alterations change flood regimes, reduce nutrie…

    Date Published:
    2021-02-01
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Rohr, Jason R., Carrick, Hunter J., Mahon, Michael B., Hudson, Peter J., Rumschlag, Samantha L., Raffel, Thomas R., Hoverman, Jason T.
    Abstract:

    Predicting ecological effects of contaminants remains challenging because of the sheer number of chemicals and their ambiguous role in biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships. We evaluate responses of experimental pond ecosystems to standardized concentrations of 12 pesticides, nested in four pesticide classes and two pesticide types. We show consistent effects of herbicides and insecticides on ecosystem function, and slightly less consistent effects on community composition. Effects of…

    Date Published:
    2020-12-10
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Sauer, Erin L., Rohr, Jason R., Santiago, Olivia, Spencer, Samuel, Cohen, Jeremy M.
    Abstract:

    Disease outbreaks among wildlife have surged in recent decades alongside climate change, although it remains unclear how climate change alters disease dynamics across different geographic regions. We amassed a global, spatiotemporal dataset describing parasite prevalence across 7346 wildlife populations and 2021 host-parasite combinations, compiling local weather and climate records at each location. We found that hosts from cool and warm climates experienced increased disease risk at abnorma…

    Date Published:
    2020-11-20
    Record Visibility:
    Public
  • Author(s):
    Cano, Natalia, Rohr, Jason R., Roznik, Elizabeth A., Surbaugh, Kerri L.
    Abstract:

    Identifying the mechanisms underlying biological invasions can inform the management of invasive species. The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) suggests that invasive species have a competitive advantage in their introduced range because they leave behind many of their predators and parasites from their native range, allowing them to shift resources from defences to growth, reproduction and dispersal. Many studies have demonstrated that invasive species have fewer parasites than their native cou…

    Date Created:
    2020-06-01
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    Public
  • Author(s):
    Greenspan, Sasha E., Toledo, Luis Felipe, Rohr, Jason R., Rodriguez, David, Ribeiro, Luisa P., Becker, C. Guilherme, Haddad, Celio F. B., Neely, Wesley J., Martins, Renato A., Carvalho, Tamilie
    Abstract:

    Cool-adapted species inhabiting montane tropical forests are vulnerable to heat stress associated with climate warming. According to the thermal mismatch hypothesis, pathogens are predicted to have broader thermal tolerances than their hosts, which can lead to increased pathogen loads and host mortality when temperatures are outside hosts’ thermal optima. We tested the thermal mismatch hypothesis in two habitat generalist species expected to have wide thermal tolerance ranges: Dendropsoph…

    Date Created:
    2020-05-01
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    Public
  • Author(s):
    Gershunov, Alexander, Rohr, Jason R., Skaff, Nicholas K., Clemesha, Rachel E. S., Lettenmaier, Dennis P., Remais, Justin, V, Cheng, Qu, Hoover, Christopher M., Head, Jennifer R., Snyder, Robert E., Collender, Philip A.
    Abstract:

    Temperature is widely known to influence the spatio-temporal dynamics of vector-borne disease transmission, particularly as temperatures vary across critical thermal thresholds. When temperature conditions exhibit such ‘transcritical variation’, abrupt spatial or temporal discontinuities may result, generating sharp geographical or seasonal boundaries in transmission. Here, we develop a spatio-temporal machine learning algorithm to examine the implications of transcritical variation f…

    Date Created:
    2020-08-12
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    Public
  • Author(s):
    Ortega, Nicole, Venesky, Matthew D., Halstead, Neal, Civitello, David J., McMahon, Taegan A., Young, Suzanne, Lajeunesse, Marc J., Sears, Brittany F., Delius, Bryan K., Roznik, Elizabeth A., Knutie, Sarah A., Sauer, Erin L., Cohen, Jeremy M., Bessler, Scott, Rohr, Jason R., Nguyen, Karena
    Abstract:

    Complex ecological relationships, such as host-parasite interactions, are often modeled with laboratory experiments. However, some experimental laboratory conditions, such as temperature or infection dose, are regularly chosen based on convenience or convention, and it is unclear how these decisions systematically affect experimental outcomes. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of 58 laboratory studies that exposed amphibians to the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) to und…

    Date Created:
    2020-04-01
    Record Visibility:
    Public