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  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Temple of the Sun, built in 692 by Chan-Bahlum (reigned 684-702), the son of Pacal. The roofs and roof-combs were all sculptured in stucco, once painted in brilliant reds, blues and yellow, depicting such deities as the rain god Cauac (on the Temple of the Cross) and a seated God K flanked by serpents (on the Temple of the Sun).

    Site of Pre-Columbian Maya ceremonial centre in the foothills of the Sierra de Palenque mountains, Chiapas, Mexico. During the 7th and 8th centuries AD Palenque was …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    One of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous for its well-preserved ruins of ancient Lankan civilization; it was the capital of Sinhalese kings of Ceylon from the 4th century BCE, abandoned in 11th century CE due to Tamil invasions. The city is sacred to Buddhists (introduced to the country ca. 250 BCE) and has a sacred Bo tree (the Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi), believed to have grown from a sapling of the original tree where Buddha found enlightenment. Thuparama Dagoba, the oldest shrine in Sri …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Rievaulx Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey located in the village of Rievaulx, near Helmsley in North Yorkshire, England. Rievaulx was founded in 1132 by Walter Espec, a powerful northern baron and landowner, with monks from Clairvaux in eastern France. The Abbey began to decline in the late 13th century. By 1380 only fifteen monks and three lay brothers are mentioned. It was once one of the wealthiest abbeys in England and was dissolved by Henry VIII of England in 1538. In 1758 the still-ex…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The late 12th-century refectory measured 37.8 by 11.9 m and was one of the largest of its type in England. The interior was decorated by blind arcades alternating with 21 large lancet windows, which poured light on the monks as they assembled for their daily meal. Access from the cloister was through a trefoil-headed doorway flanked by blind arcading and fronted by lead-lined troughs, in which the monks washed their hands before meals.

    Rievaulx Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey located in t…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Kenilworth Castle is notable for the quality of its architecture, with phases of building from Norman through to Tudor times. In 1265 the medieval castle at Kenilworth was granted by Henry III to his second son, the Earl of Lancaster, and for the next three centuries it was passed back and forth between the crown and various noble families. In 1563 the castle was granted by Queen Elizabeth to her favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, who decided to convert the castle into a great house…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The eastern transept of the abbey church, completed ca. 1247.

    Fountains Abbey was founded in 1132 following a dispute at St. Mary’s Abbey in York. Thirteen exiled Benedictine monks were supplied with a site in the valley of the River Skell and joined the Cistercian order in 1135. The land was well watered, both by the River Skell and by six springs, hence the name St. Mary of the Springs, latinized to ‘de Fontibus’. Along with Rievaulx, it was the most important Cistercian abbey …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    From ca. 1200 until its dissolution in 1539 St. Mary’s Abbey was the richest monastic house in the north of England. This is attested by the remains of its 13th-, 14th- and 15th-century buildings (now in ruins). The church chancel is Romanesque, but had the most important extant Early Gothic sculpture in England (now in York Museum). The eastern arm of the church (begun 1270) was a nine-bay aisled rectangle of a locally well-established type. Other buildings include a chapter house and th…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Founded as a convent for the Carmelite Order in 1389. The medieval convent was ruined in the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake, and the ruins of its Gothic church (Igreja do Carmo) are the main trace of the great earthquake still visible in the city. The Convent library and its 5000 books were all lost. The convent was remodelled and eventually became a military quarters. The church was never fully rebuilt and was donated in 1864 to the Association of Portuguese Archaeologists, which turned the ruined b…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    A medieval fortress located in the canton of Aargau, near the Aar River. At the time of its construction, the location was part of the Duchy of Swabia. Habsburg Castle is the originating seat of the House of Habsburg, which became one of the leading imperial and royal dynasties in Europe. Built by Werner, bishop of Strasbourg, and his brother-in-law, Count Radbot ca. 1020-1030. Habsburg Castle remained property of the House of Habsburg until 1415. Today the “large” and “small&q…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The capitolium is a Roman temple from the 2nd century CE, principally dedicated to Rome’s protective triad: Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno Regina and Minerva Augusta. It has a secondary dedication to the emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius; judging by this reference, the capitol must have been completed in 166-167 CE. Thomas d'Arcos identified the capitol as a temple of Jupiter in the 17th century. The walls, executed in opus africanum style, and the entablature of the portico we…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The southern edge of the whole hill was the palace (2nd century CE) of the Roman governor of Africa. In the later 1st and 2nd centuries CE a ring of public buildings was built around the earlier colony. These included the Antonine Baths, an amphitheatre, theatre, odeion and several groups of public cisterns.

    Carthage is a famed ancient city on the Gulf of Tunis; center of a powerful state that conquered Sardinia, Malta, and Balearic Islands in the 6th century BCE. After battling Rome in the …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The southern edge of the whole hill was the palace (2nd century CE) of the Roman governor of Africa. In the later 1st and 2nd centuries CE a ring of public buildings was built around the earlier colony. These included the Antonine Baths, an amphitheatre, theatre, odeion and several groups of public cisterns.

    Carthage is a famed ancient city on the Gulf of Tunis; center of a powerful state that conquered Sardinia, Malta, and Balearic Islands in the 6th century BCE. After battling Rome in the …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01