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  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The conical roofs are later additions (ca. 1841), destroyed in WWII. The building was restored back to the earlier Gothic phase with the top turret with crenellations.

    The church building comprises two separate sections. The original nave section, called the Round Church, and an adjoining rectangular section, built approximately half a century later, called the Chancel. It was designed to recall the holiest place in the Crusaders’ world: the circular Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerus…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The castle was founded by William I immediately after the Norman Conquest (1066). It was strategically sited in the south-east angle of the Roman city wall, just downstream from Old London Bridge, commanding open countryside to the east, the Thames and the bridge to the south, and the city to the north and west. By the end of the 13th century the outer wall enclosed an area of about 7 ha, which is roughly the present size of the castle. The huge stone donjon, later known as the White Tower, w…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The abbey’s two western towers were built between 1722 and 1745 by Nicholas Hawksmoor, constructed from Portland stone to an early example of a Gothic Revival design. Further rebuilding and restoration occurred in the 19th century under Sir George Gilbert Scott. “In 1723, on the death of Wren, he became architect to Westminster Abbey, the west gable (1735) and towers (1734-1745) of which are his; they also are Gothic in texture and feeling rather than in detail. On this occasion the …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    On 16 October 1834, most of the Palace was destroyed by fire. Only Westminster Hall, the Jewel Tower, the crypt of St Stephen’s Chapel and the cloisters survived. A Royal Commission was appointed to study the rebuilding of the Palace and decided that it should be rebuilt on the same site, and that its style should be either Gothic or Elizabethan. A heated public debate over the proposed styles ensued. It was decided that neo-Classical design, similar to that of the White House and Congres…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The column in front is the Westminster School Crimean War Monument, 1861 by John Birnie Philip and Sir George Gilbert Scott.

    The abbey’s two western towers were built between 1722 and 1745 by Nicholas Hawksmoor, constructed from Portland stone to an early example of a Gothic Revival design. Further rebuilding and restoration occurred in the 19th century under Sir George Gilbert Scott. “In 1723, on the death of Wren, he became architect to Westminster Abbey, the west gable (1735) and…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The castle remains centered on the motte or artificial hill on which William the Conqueror built the first castle. Henry II constructed the Round Tower and the original stone outer wall, ca. 1165.

    One of a series of castles that William I (reigned 1066-1087) established around London, Windsor occupied the nearest strong point in the Thames Valley to the west of the city. By the reign of Henry I (1100-1135) the creation of a large hunting forest, together with the proximity of London, made th…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    One of a series of castles that William I (reigned 1066-1087) established around London, Windsor occupied the nearest strong point in the Thames Valley to the west of the city. By the reign of Henry I (1100-1135) the creation of a large hunting forest, together with the proximity of London, made this a favoured royal residence as well as a fortress. It is the largest inhabited castle in the world and the oldest in continuous occupation. In 1992 a fire damaged approximately one-fifth of the ca…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    Underneath the turret in the north-west corner is the first European carving of the head of a rhinoceros, which is typical of contemporary Portuguese exoticism. The fort was originally an island but now stands close to the bank due to landfill.

    Conceived by John II (reigned 1481-1495) to defend the entrance to Lisbon, the tower was erected by Manuel I. It was designed by Francisco de Arruda and was begun probably in 1514 and finished, with its artillery in place, by 1521. The Tower of Belém …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The oldest of the church’s façades, the so-called Saint Joseph façade, was built in 1480 in a style very much inspired by the Flemish. The main façade is a robust Baroque tower, the upper part of which supports a spire covered with azulejos (tile). In the choir, the altarpiece is an extraordinary late Renaissance piece, created by Martínez Montañés with Baroque elements attributed to Juan de Arce. The Baroque-style Chapel of the Holy Sacrament backs onto the wall of the church. It was dec…

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The church sits on the site of an older cathedral, completed in 1260. In 1596 Cádiz was destroyed by the 2nd Earl of Essex, leading to its almost total rebuilding on a grid plan that has been partly maintained; the first major work was to rebuild the cathedral (the Catedral Vieja, dedicated to La Santa Cruz), which was completed in 1602. During the period of prosperity that followed, a new cathedral (the Catedral Nueva) was begun in the High Baroque style in 1722 by Vicente Acero (died 1738) …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The tower was built during the late 12th century by the Almohads to protect the nearby Roman Bridge (Puente Romano) on the Guadalquivir river. The tower, standing on the left bank of the river, originally consisted of an arched gate between two square towers. The building was restored in 1369 by king Henry II of Castile. A third tower was added to the existing ones, in the shape of two cylinders connecting them. The tower was declared a national historical monument in 1931.

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01
  • Creator(s):
    G. Massiot & cie
    Description:

    The present structure, dedicated to St. Peter, is a transitional Romanesque-Gothic work, begun in the 1160s and finished ca. 1232. It is small (l. ca. 70 m) and built to a basilical plan. The two transept towers represent the survival of a Carolingian tradition of building that was common in the Middle and Upper Rhine regions. The general plan was influenced by Cistercian churches, with two rectangular chapels at the east end of each transept. The cathedral retains its carved capitals, which …

    Date Created:
    1910-01-01