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  • Author(s):
    Rick Johnson
    Abstract:
    Editor's Summary: Scholarly research is at the forefront of innovation, especially with a breadth of new technologies that can enhance the research process. However, in a race for scholars to produce more and more new findings, documentation practices and reproduction of results may be neglected. Lack of validation through reproduction can lead to a general distrust of scholarly research and experiments, but a more generous approach to information sharing could be the answer to this issue...
    Date Published:
    2017-04
  • Author(s):
    Thomas A. Stapleford
    Abstract:
    Whereas union leaders in nineteenth-century America often used the phrase “a living wage” to describe appropriate compensation for skilled workers, today that phrase is typically linked to unskilled labor. I argue that the erosion of ties between skilled workers and the living wage occurred in several stages between 1900 and 1930. Having traditionally avoided quantifying the “living wage,” unions were forced to do so within arbitration hearings, especially as these proliferated during and aft...
    Date Published:
    2008
  • Author(s):
    Thomas A. Stapleford
    Abstract:
    Created in 1884, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has been the major federal source for data on labor-related topics in the United States such as prices, unemployment, compensation, productivity, and family expenditures. This essay traces the development and transformation of formal and informal consulting relationships between the BLS and external groups (including academic social scientists, unions, businesses, and other government entities) over the twentieth century. Though such ...
    Date Published:
    2010-06
  • Author(s):
    Thomas A. Stapleford
    Abstract:
    This essay explores the history of the 1935-1936 Study of Consumer Purchases, an extraordinary national survey of family incomes and expenditures undertaken by the federal government during the New Deal. Created and administered primarily left-leaning economists, the project was an order of magnitude larger and more complex than any previous expenditure survey and was intended to aid and justify state-led economic planning. Yet it failed to be an effective help to New Deal reformers, proving ...
    Date Published:
    2007-09
  • Author(s):
    Thomas A. Stapleford
    Abstract:
    Prior to the 1960s most American economists rejected hedonic techniques as a solution to the problem of quality change in price indexes. I argue that behind that judgment lay a deeper conceptual divide over how best to define and assess product quality: through expert testing or through market price differentials. Most American economists working on price indexes at the time had ties to the U.S. consumer movement, which emphasized consumer ignorance and promoted expert analysis as the only re...
    Date Published:
    2011
  • Author(s):
    Thomas A. Stapleford
    Abstract:
    This essay examines the evolution of data-collection practices in American expenditure surveys over much of the twentieth century. Economists conducting expenditure surveys faced one fundamental concern: their success hinged upon the cooperation of interviewees (typically housewives) and the reliability of their testimony. Investigators recognized that both dependencies posed serious problems, and they struggled to devise effective solutions. I argue that over the course of the twentieth cent...
    Date Published:
    2012
  • Author(s):
    Thomas A. Stapleford
    Abstract:
    This essay argues that beneath the superficial linearity of the history of neoclassical price index theory lie important conceptual ruptures that are linked to the ordinal revolution, including a radical transformation in the core objective for cost-of-living indexes. Revealing these ruptures produces a more accurate history of both the development of neoclassical price index theory and its reception. Furthermore, we can recognize how transformations in this theory have made cost-of-living in...
    Date Published:
    2011
  • Author(s):
    Daniel Bates, Andrew Sommese, Jonathan Hauenstein
    Abstract:
    Numerical algebraic geometry is the area devoted to the solution and manipulation of polynomial systems by numerical methods, which are mainly based on continuation. Due to the extreme intrinsic parallelism of continuation, polynomial systems may be successfully dealt with that are much larger than is possible with other methods. Singular solutions require special numerical methods called endgames, and the endgames currently used do not take advantage of parallelism. This article gives an ove...
  • Author(s):
    Charles Wampler II, Daniel Bates, Andrew Sommese, Jonathan Hauenstein
    Abstract:
    *Dedicated to our collaborator, mentor, and friend, Andrew Sommese, by Bates, Hauenstein, and Wampler on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday.* When numerically tracking implicitly-defined paths, such as is required for homotopy continuation methods, efficiency and reliability are enhanced by using adaptive stepsize and adaptive multiprecision methods. Both efficiency and reliability can be further improved by adapting precision and stepsize simultaneously. This paper presents a strategy fo...
  • Author(s):
    Charles Wampler, Andrew Sommese, Jonathan Hauenstein
    Abstract:
    Though numerical methods to find all the isolated solutions of nonlinear systems of multivariate polynomials go back 30 years, it is only over the last decade that numerical methods have been devised for the computation and manipulation of algebraic sets coming from polynomial systems over the complex numbers. Collectively, these algorithms and the underlying theory have come to be known as numerical algebraic geometry. Several software packages are capable of carrying out some of the operati...
  • Author(s):
    Daniel Bates, Andrew Sommese, Jonathan Hauenstein
    Abstract:
    Path tracking is the fundamental computational tool in homotopy continuation and is therefore key in most algorithms in the emerging field of numerical algebraic geometry. Though the basic notions of predictor-corrector methods have been known for years, there is still much to be considered, particularly in the specialized algebraic setting of solving polynomial systems. In this article, the effects of the choice of predictor method on the performance of a tracker is analyzed, and details for...
  • Author(s):
    Mark Dehmlow
    Abstract:
    In December of 2014, the University of Notre Dame’s Office of Information Technology (OIT) announced its “Cloud First” strategy. The strategic goal of the initiative is to espouse a technology implementation strategy that lays out a technology adoption strategy with the following order of preferences: 1. Use software provided and hosted by vendors in the cloud, 2. Adopt cloud-based data-centers for implementing what previously had been on-premise solutions, and 3. Reduce local implementations...