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  • Author(s):
    Nydia Morales Soto, Anne E. Mattingly, Shaun W. Lee, Joshua D. Shrout
    Abstract:

    Many organisms coordinate to move and colonize over surfaces. Bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibit such surface motility as a precursor step to forming biofilms. Here we show a group surface motility where small groups of P. aeruginosa use their type IV pili (TFP) appendages over long-distances. Small cell clusters employ their TFP to move multiple cell lengths in fractions of a second and form new multicellular groups. Given the length scale and speed of displacement, cells appear…

    Date Published:
    2019-01
  • Author(s):
    Alyssa G. Oberman, Glen L. Niebur
    Abstract:

    Bone marrow is a cellular tissue that forms within the pore space and hollow diaphysis of bones. As a tissue, its primary function is to support the hematopoietic progenitor cells that maintain the populations of both erythroid and myeloid lineage cells in the bone marrow, making it an essential element of normal mammalian physiology. However, bone’s primary function is load bearing, and deformations induced by external forces are transmitted to the encapsulated marrow. Understanding the effe…

    Date Published:
    2019-09
  • Author(s):
    Alyssa G. Oberman, Glen L. Niebur
    Abstract:

    Bone marrow is a cellular tissue that forms within the pore space and hollow diaphysis of bones. As a tissue, its primary function is to support the hematopoietic progenitor cells that maintain the populations of both erythroid and myeloid lineage cells in the bone marrow, making it an essential element of normal mammalian physiology. However, bone’s primary function is load bearing, and deformations induced by external forces are transmitted to the encapsulated marrow. Understanding the effe…

    Date Published:
    2019-09
  • Author(s):
    Nydia Morales Soto, Anne E. Mattingly, Shaun W. Lee, Joshua D. Shrout
    Abstract:

    Many organisms coordinate to move and colonize over surfaces. Bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibit such surface motility as a precursor step to forming biofilms. Here we show a group surface motility where small groups of P. aeruginosa use their type IV pili (TFP) appendages over long-distances. Small cell clusters employ their TFP to move multiple cell lengths in fractions of a second and form new multicellular groups. Given the length scale and speed of displacement, cells appear…

    Date Published:
    2019-01
  • Author(s):
    Melissa Harden, Jeffrey J. Harden
    Abstract:

    What information can I trust? What sources should I include in my paper? Where can I find a quote that fits my argument? Undergraduates ask instructors, classmates, and/or librarians these questions. Meanwhile, instructors bemoan the gap between their expectations for student writing and the finished products. Navigating a large volume of scholarship and critically evaluating potential sources is straightforward for faculty who have long passed key information literacy thresholds. However, st…

    Date Published:
    2019
  • Author(s):
    Mikala Narlock, Pat Lawton, Patrick Rader
    Abstract:

    At Hesburgh Libraries at the University of Notre Dame, digitization had been an obscure process: roles and responsibilities were unclear, capacity was opaque, and institutional capabilities were mostly unknown. Collections were being digitized, but many were unclear how to go about it and what the possibilities were. Some characterized what had evolved as a “favor-based” system. To resolve these uncertainties, the Digital Collections Workflow (DCW) Team was established and charged with ensuri…

    Date Published:
    2019-10
  • Author(s):
    Jeff Harden
    Abstract:

    Politicians and scholars contend that governmental transparency reforms constrain politicians’ capacity to negotiate and compromise in the pursuit of policy goals. However, existing research primarily emphasizes only that governments are strategic in adopting these reforms; whether lawmakers actually incur the alleged costs of transparency remains an open question. We investigate this issue in the context of American state legislatures, many of which have become exempt from “sunshine…

  • Author(s):
    Brianna Norris-Mullins, Bruce J. Melancon, Miguel A. Morales, Mary Ann McDowell
    Abstract:

    Leishmania parasites are the causative agents of a wide spectrum of human diseases. The clinical mani- festations of leishmaniasis range from self-healing skin lesions to fatality. The World Health Organization has classed leishmaniasis as a category 1 neglected tropical disease. Leishmaniasis represents a major in- ternational health challenge, affecting 12 million people per year and with nearly 310 million people at risk. The first-line chemotherapies used to treat leishmaniasis are intrav…

    Date Published:
    2019-07
  • Author(s):
    Maria Cristina Miranda-Vergara, Shourik Dutta, Aishwarya Natarajan, Beth Facchine, Kristen Jackson, Lukas Nystrom, Jun Li, William Kaliney, Glen Niebur, Laurie Littlepage
    Abstract:

    Bone is one of the most common sites for metastasis across cancers. Cancer cells that travel through the vasculature and invade new tissues can remain in a non-proliferative dormant state for years before colonizing the metastatic site. Switching from dormancy to colonization is the rate-limiting step of bone metastasis. Here we develop an ex vivo co-culture method to grow cancer cells in mouse bones to assess cancer cell proliferation using healthy or cancer-primed bones. Profiling soluble f…

  • Author(s):
    Ryan Roeder, Tyler Curtis
    Abstract:

    Quantitative material decomposition of multiple mixed, or spatially coincident, contrast agent (gadolinium and iodine) and tissue (calcium and water) compositions is demonstrated using photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT). Material decomposition is performed using constrained maximum like- lihood estimation (MLE) in the image domain. MLE is calibrated by multiple linear regression of all pure material compositions, which exhibits a strong correlation (R2 > 0.91) between the me…

    Date Published:
    2019-01
  • Author(s):
    J. Schiltz, Andrew Rosenberger, Todd Render, Bernice Aboud Gatrell, Haibo Qu, Colton Steiner, Paul McGinn, Steve Schmid
    Abstract:

    Ceramics have exceptional tribological performance in high wear applications, but susceptibility to brittle fracture requires expensive postprocessing, including hot isostatic pressing and polishing. Consequently, additive manufacturing (AM) represents a collection of potentially costsaving approaches for ceramic production. AM technologies have been demonstrated for oxide ceramics, but the performance of self-mated AM materials remains unknown and underscores a critical knowledge gap. Alumin…

    Date Published:
    2019-06
  • Author(s):
    Pierre C. Dagher, Evan L. Nichols, Cody J. Smith, Kenneth W. Dunn, Scott S. Howard
    Abstract:

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) provides additional contrast for fluorophores with overlapping emission spectra. The phasor approach to FLIM greatly reduces the complexity of FLIM analysis and enables a useful image segmentation technique by selecting adjacent phasor points and labeling their corresponding pixels with different colors. This phasor labeling process, however, is empirical and could lead to biased results. In this Letter, we present a novel and unbiased approach …

    Date Published:
    2019-08