Blooms of blue-green algae are a serious water quality problem in many productive lakes (Plate 8; Cooke et al. 1986; Paerl 1988). Causes of blue-green blooms involve many factors, including mixing, trace metals, macronutrients, dissolved organic matter, microbial activity, and herbivory (Paerl 1988; Carpenter 1989). Of the many factors implicated, phosphorus loading and grazing are especially pertinent to management of nuisance blue-green blooms (Cooke et al. 1986; Shapiro and Wright 1984). The role of phosphorus is firmly established. Blue-green blooms can be triggered by adding phosphorus ratios favor blue-green dominance (Smith 1983), these nutrients commonly covary (Carpenter et al. 1990) and phosphorus is generally the more critical element for ecosystem dynamics (Schindler 1977).
Destabilization of planktonic ecosystems and blooms of blue-green algae Food Web Management: A Case Study of Lake Mendota by J.F. Kitchell
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