The Influence of Marine-Derived Nutrient Subsidies on Streams and Lakes at Izembek National Wildlife Refuge

Master's Thesis


Although the effects of Pacific salmon spawners have been well-studied in the Pacific Northwest, their influence remains relatively unexplored across portions of their range including the North Pacific Rim and along the Alaska Peninsula. In my first data chapter, I examined whether the influence of salmon on streams and lakes at Izembek National Wildlife Refuge (INWR) was similar to previously studied salmon-bearing ecosystems. At INWR, the impact of salmon was smaller than elsewhere, likely due to small run sizes and regional environmental characteristics including very low background molar nitrogen to phosphorous ratios. Nevertheless, I found that upstream and downstream reaches within a single watershed can respond differently to salmon migration, suggesting that salmon differentially influence freshwater ecosystems depending on landscape position. In my second data chapter, I examined whether marine-derived nutrient subsidies from salmon and waterbirds differ in their effects on lake ecosystems. In general, lakes receiving subsidies had higher nutrient concentrations than lakes with no significant subsidies, and water column chl-a was positively correlated to nutrient availability. However, biofilm nutrient limitation differed between lakes receiving salmon versus waterbird subsidies. In summary, both source and environmental context strongly influences the effect of marine-derived nutrient subsidies in streams and lakes at INWR.


Attribute NameValues
  • etd-08112014-010222

Author Sarah Gillian Winikoff
Advisor Jennifer L. Tank
Contributor Jennifer L. Tank, Committee Chair
Contributor Gary A. Lamberti, Committee Member
Contributor Stuart Jones, Committee Member
Degree Level Master's Thesis
Degree Discipline Biological Sciences
Degree Name MS
Defense Date
  • 2014-08-05

Submission Date 2014-08-11
  • United States of America

  • Waterbirds

  • Salmon

  • Subsidies

  • Nutrients

  • Tundra

  • Freshwater

  • University of Notre Dame

  • English

Record Visibility Public
Embargo Release Date
  • 2015-08-21

Content License
  • All rights reserved

Departments and Units


Please Note: You may encounter a delay before a download begins. Large or infrequently accessed files can take several minutes to retrieve from our archival storage system.