Borobudur: Detail, looking down from the summit at the many small stupas during restoration



The name Bore-Budur, and thus BoroBudur, is thought to have been written by Raffles in English grammar to mean the nearby village of Bore.

Buddhist temple site discovered by the British in 1814 after having been buried in volcanic ash ca. 1000. In 1873, the first detailed monograph was published. The first photograph of the monument was taken in 1873 by a Dutch-Flemish engraver, Isidore van Kinsbergen. Restoration started ca. 1902-1911. It was constructed during the Shailendra dynasty on a hill, nine levels consisting of a base, five square terraces and three upper circular terraces. It is a virtually solid monument in the form of a stepped pyramid crowned by a stupa. The first four terrace walls are showcases for bas-relief sculptures. The bas-reliefs in Borobudur depicted many scenes of daily life in 8th century ancient Java, as well as Jataka (stories of the Buddha). Gunadharma or Gunadarma is claimed as the name of the architect of Borobudu.


Attribute NameValues
Alternate Title
  • Candi Borobudur

  • G. Massiot & cie

  • Architecture

Date Created
  • 1910-01-01

Date Digitized
  • 2007-01-01

Cultural Context
  • Sailendra

Place of Creation
  • Borobudur, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia

  • -7.608+110.204

  • Borobudur

Departments and Units
Member of
Temporal Coverage
  • before or circa 1910

Record Visibility Public
Content License


Collections Featuring this Image
Architectural Lantern Slides of Indonesia


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