The Kuramoto model describes synchronization behavior among coupled oscillators and enjoys successful application in a wide variety of fields. Many of these applications seek phase-coherent solutions, i.e., equilibria of the model. Historically, research has focused on situations where the number of oscillators, n, is extremely large and can be treated as being infinite. More recently, however, applications have arisen in areas such as electrical engineering with more modest values of n. For these, the equilibria can be located by solving a system of polynomial equations utilizing techniques from algebraic geometry. Typical methods for solving such systems locate all complex solutions even though only the real solutions, corresponding to equilibria of the model, are of physical interest. In this paper, we develop an algorithm to locate all equilibria of the model, thereby shortening computation time by several orders of magnitude in certain situations. This is accomplished by choosing specific equilibria representatives and the consequent algebraic decoupling of the system. We compare this solving approach to other computational algebraic geometric methods. Furthermore, analyzing this approach allows us to prove, asymptotically, that the maximum number of equilibria grows at the same rate as the number of complex solutions of a corresponding polynomial system. Finally, we conjecture an upper bound on the maximum number of equilibria for any number of oscillators which generalizes the known cases and is obtained on a range of explicitly provided natural frequencies.
Locating and counting equilibria of the Kuramoto model with rank one couplingDataset
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