The Development of Effortful Control: Links with Parenting, Infant Emotion Regulation, and Social Competence in Early Childhood

Doctoral Dissertation


Relationships among effortful control, parenting strategies, and social behavior were examined contemporaneously for 4- and 5- year- olds. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that parenting moderated the relationship between effortful control and social behavior, especially for 5-year-olds. In addition, the extent to which infant regulation and reactivity during a stranger approach situation and maternal sensitivity during play predicted rates of effortful control in early childhood was examined longitudinally in 39 participants. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that infants who showed more regulation during the stranger approach later showed higher effortful control scores, compared to infants who showed more reactivity to the stranger approach. Furthermore, maternal sensitivity during play in infancy predicted later effortful control in early childhood. Results are discussed in terms of self-regulation theory and the role of child factors and caregiver behavior in the development of regulation.


Attribute NameValues
  • etd-12052003-102051

Author Ashley Lynn Hill
Advisor Julia M. Braungart-Rieker
Contributor Julia M. Braungart-Rieker, Committee Chair
Degree Level Doctoral Dissertation
Degree Discipline Psychology
Degree Name PhD
Defense Date
  • 2003-07-24

Submission Date 2003-12-05
  • United States of America

  • parenting

  • emotion regulation

  • effortful control

  • University of Notre Dame

  • English

Record Visibility Public
Content License
  • All rights reserved

Departments and Units


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