The Embodiment of Protest: How Gender Moderates the Individual-Level Effects of Demonstration Participation

Master's Thesis


Although social movement scholars have clarified how gender moderates activist recruitment and participation, research has yet to examine how gender moderates the effect of demonstration participation on individual political empowerment. Research on social movement consequences, furthermore, has focused on macro-level movement outcomes and has relatively underemphasized the personal consequences of demonstration participation. To develop these areas, I use European Social Survey (ESS) data to examine how gender moderates the effects of demonstration participation on individuals’ feelings of political empowerment, as measured through self-reported internal and external political efficacy. Results indicate that participation boosts the political empowerment of men. Women protesters, however, exhibit mixed results, with boosts in empowerment on the measure of internal political efficacy, but not external political efficacy. This suggests that institutional barriers to political participation and the relatively high risk-potential of protest—even when legal and routine—continue to affect women and men differently. In making this argument, I contribute to the literature on how gender moderates protest participation and experience, and thereby, I also reinforce the need to focus on the effects of participation in discrete protest events.


Attribute NameValues
Author Robert W. Mowry
Contributor Kraig Beyerlein, Research Director
Contributor Rory McVeigh, Committee Member
Contributor Jessica Collett, Committee Member
Degree Level Master's Thesis
Degree Discipline Sociology
Degree Name Master of Arts
Defense Date
  • 2016-03-02

Submission Date 2016-07-18
  • Protest participation and political empowerment

  • English

Record Visibility and Access Public
Content License
  • All rights reserved

Departments and Units


Please Note: You may encounter a delay before a download begins. Large or infrequently accessed files can take several minutes to retrieve from our archival storage system.